In light of rising local and global food prices, this report analyses South Africa’s current food production and distribution systems, considers the entrenched power dynamics that shape them, and whether more radical transformation of the agro-food system is needed to ensure adequate access to food for all. The report examines possible points of intervention which could open the system to better involve marginalised or passively incorporated people into the system. Interventions could also offer pathways to structural change to deepen diversity in the agro-food system and reorient it to the needs of the poor, both as historically subordinated producers and as consumers. As both the state and corporations are involved in different aspects of chain governance, and since these aspects differ from commodity to commodity, there can be no overarching recommendations about how to adjust governance to orient industrial commodity chains in the interests of the poor. Whereas different actors can take responsibility for segments of the process, who can and will provide that remains an open question.