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by Mafaniso Hara, Moeniba Isaacs in 2015
Two PLAAS researchers, Mafa Hara and Moeniba Isaacs have contributed a chapter each to this book. Prof Hara's chapter, co-authored with Steve Donda and Friday Njaya, is called Lessons from Existing Modes of Governance in Malawi’s Small-Scale Fisheries. This chapter attempts to analyze the varying management outcomes under the three existing modes of governance (hierarchical, co-governance and self-governance) using the interactive governance framework’s three components – governing system, system-to-be-governed and governing interactions. Such a critical analysis will contribute towards finding possible solutions to current management failures in Malawi fisheries and other small-scale fisheries with similar characteristics.
 
Prof Isaacs' chapter, The Governability of Small-Scale Fisheries Food System in South Africa – The Case of Snoek and West Coast Rock Lobster, examines this issue by looking at the food system of two important small-scale species – Thyritesatun (snoek) for “nutritious” consumption and sale and Jasus lalandii (west coast rock lobster; WCRL) for “luxury” consumption. The governance of the food system and the challenges for the governability of the snoek and WCRL small-scale fisheries are critically assessed.
Interactive Governance for Small-Scale Fisheries
by Moeniba Isaacs, Mafaniso Hara in 2015

Globally, small-scale fisheries play a significant role in food security, poverty reduction and income generation (Béné et al 2007; Heck et al 2007; Béné et al 2010; FAO 2003). At the 2008 Global Conference on Small-Scale Fishing in Bangkok, Thailand, organised by the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), it was indicated that small-scale fisheries contribute to more than half of the world’s marine and inland fish catch. The importance of this sector is further underlined as it employs over 95% of all men and women engaged in fisheries worldwide and that, of these, more than 90% are to be found in developing countries (FAO 2009). In Africa, it is estimated that the fishing sector provides income for over 10 million people engaged in fish production, processing and trade. And the sector contributes to the livelihoods and food security of over 200 million people on the continent1. In South Africa, however, fisheries have historically been dominated by the commercial marine sector. Although small-scale fisheries contribute less than 1% to South Africa’s GDP, they play an important role in the provision of protein and employment – particularly in the about 136 coastal communities2 dotted along South Africa’s 3 000-kilometre coastline. The extent and spread of small-scale fishers covers all the four maritime provinces, especially the Western Cape, where fishing has been an important source of protein among the coastal communities since the 1700s (Isaacs 2013). Small-scale fishers are found both in urban and rural coastal areas. A survey in 2000 estimated that there were about 30 000 subsistence fishers and about 28 000 households that depended on harvesting near-shore marine resources (Clark et al. 2002). The latest estimated total number of small-scale and subsistence fishers in South Africa is about 8 0783.

RuralReportBk2
by EP Harrison, V Dzigirai, E Gandiwa, T Nzuma, B Masivele and HT Ndlovu in 2015

This policy brief argues that to progress community based natural resource management in Zimbabwe, emphasis needs to shift from decentralisation towards full devolution beyond the Rural District Councils (RDCs) alongside an increase in capacity of local-level institutions (including RDCs) to fulfil original roles and obligations. Transparency of community-based natural resource management processes is needed, including an equalling of power between the institutions of accountability and investors involved. Partnerships between central government, local government, communities, and investors are needed to ensure suitable and equitable communication is received by all parties. It is also vital to increase project emphasis on alleviating poverty and reducing the need for communities to focus solely on their survival so that they can be fully involved.

Policy Brief 35
by Mafaniso Hara in 2015

Fish is probably this cheapest type of protein for the poor and low income groups in Africa. There is great potential for growth in Africa regional fish trade, especially exports key from maritime producing states such as Mauritania, South Africa and Namibia to inland states. This potential is as a result of the effects of declining per capita fish supply among most inland states resulting from declining or stagnant production from inland fisheries against increasing fishing effort and human populations. Meanwhile some African maritime states have fish resources that are being under-utilised (for example red eye herring in South Africa) or being used for fishmeal production (for example in South Africa and Namibia) instead of human consumption. Such regional trade could improve fish protein supply and food security to the receiving states while financially benefitting the exporting states. In addition such imports could also help alleviate pressure on inland fisheries most of which are already under increasing pressure.
This paper explores the potential for increased Africa regional fish trade and the challenges thereof. It also suggests how these challenges could be overcome for mutual benefit of both exporting and importing countries. It mainly uses the SADC region as the case study area.

by Fiona Nunana, Mafaniso Hara, Paul Onyango in 2015

Institutions matter within natural resource management. While there are many examples of analyses of the nature and influence of institutions within fisheries, there are fewer examples of how institutions inform the practice and outcomes of co-management. This article reports on analysis of institutions and fisheries co-management in East African and Malawi inland fisheries informed by Critical Institutionalism. It concludes that relations between fisheries departments and local co-management structures, and between local government/traditional authorities and local co-management structures, and social, power, and gender relations within and beyond fisheries communities, particularly impact on the practice and outcomes of co-management.

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